Islamic astronomers, such as Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi, had an important role in the process of our knowledge of astronomy. They translated important information, such as the famous work of Ptolemy, Almagest.
This work included an outline of Aristotle’s cosmology, the motions of the stars, the moon, Jupiter and Saturn, the eclipses and so on.
To be able to translate a work as complex as this, one had to have enough knowledge and understanding of the matter himself. The Arabic astronomers not only translated the works but also added a lot of important information themselves.
The list includes Altair (an-Nisr uṭ-Ṭā’ir), Rigil Kentaurus (ul-Qanṭūris), Betelgeuse (Ibṭ ul-Jawzā’), Deneb (Dhanab ud-Dajājah), Alnitak (an-Niṭāq), Fomalhaut (Fum al-Hul), and Algol (Ra’as al-Ghūl).
Many of the names of these stars were eventually copied and used in Europe, in a lot of times not knowing that the origin of these names is Arabic. Below you will find a few examples of bright stars with a, although Latinized, an Arabic name.
Altair - The name of this star is actually a shortened version of ‘an-Nisr uṭ-Ṭā’ir’, meaning the flying Eagle.
Another star is named Rigil Kentaurus. It’s derived from ‘Rijl ul-Qanṭūris. Translated, this would be Foot of the Centaur.
The famous star Betelgeuse, meaning armpit of the central one, comes from the Arabic name ‘Ibṭ ul-Jawzā’.
Also, Deneb is a shortened version of ‘Dhanab ud-Dajājah‘, meaning tail of the hen.
Alnitak, having the meaning of the girdle, originating from the Arabic word ‘an-Niṭāq’.
Fomalhaut, this star was given the name ‘Fum al-Hul’ in Arabic, meaning mouth of the Whale.
Algol is the shortened version of the Arabic name ‘Ra’as al-Ghūl’. We recognize the word ghoul in it. A ghoul is a figure in Arabic legends and is a kind of demon, scary monster.
The list goes on and on and on! So many bright stars have a name that originates from Arabic. Unfortunately, there is no room for all the stars in one article. But the list of Arabic named stars are only one Google click away!