Skip to main content

How Did the Islamic Conquest of Iran Happen?

Praise be to Allah

Before the Islamic conquest, Iran was under the rule of the Sasanids, and suffered from a great deal of injustice, corruption and oppression. Zoroastrianism was the official religion of Iran until the Islamic conquest.

The Islamic conquest of Iran began during the caliphate of Abu Bakr as-Siddeeq (may Allah be pleased with him), when al-Muthanna ibn Haarithah conquered some of the neighbouring lands in the region of Mesopotamia in 13 AH.

During the caliphate of ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him), Abu ‘Ubayd ath-Thaqafi (may Allah be pleased with him) tried to invade Iran from the south-west, and faced the Persians in the Battle of the Bridge in 13 AH. He met Jaabaan in battle, and Allah defeated the Magians and enabled the Muslims to capture Jaabaan. Then Abu ‘Ubayd marched to Kaskar when he and Nursi met in battle and he defeated him. Then he met Jalinus in battle and defeated him. Then the tide of fortune turned against the Muslims, and many of them were killed and drowned, and Abu ‘Ubayd (may Allah be pleased with him) was killed.

Siyar A‘laam an-Nubala’ (2/421)

Then the Muslims completed the conquest of Iran under the leadership of Sa‘d ibn Abi Waqqaas in 14 AH, when the Muslim army in Persia inflicted a mighty defeat (on the Persians) in the Battle of al-Qaadisiyyah, which was one of the major battles of the Muslims.
The historians stated that the Muslims were between seven and eight thousand strong, and that Rostom, the Persian commander, had sixty thousand troops.

On a Monday in Muharram 14 AH, a strong wind blew and lifted the tents of the Persians from their places, and the couch of Rostom, that had been set up for him, was overturned. He hastened to ride his mule and flee, but the Muslims overtook him and killed him. They also killed al-Jalinus, the commander of the Persian vanguard, and the Persians were defeated – praise be to Allah – to the last man and the Muslims pursued them. On that day those who were chained were killed in their entirety, of whom there were thirty thousand. Ten thousand were killed in the battle, and before that a similar number had also been killed. On that day and on the previous days, two thousand five hundred Muslims were killed, may Allah have mercy on them.

The Muslims pursued those who fled until they entered the capital city behind them, namely al-Madaa’in (Ctesiphon), which was the seat of the court of Chosroes.

From the battle of al-Qaadisiyyah the Muslims seized an indescribably huge amount of wealth and weapons. The booty was gathered after giving the troops their shares, and the khums and glad tidings of the victory were sent to Ameer al-Mu’mineen ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab (may Allah be pleased with him).

Al-Bidaayah wa’n-Nihaayah (9/630)

Then the Muslims continued their advance into Persian territory, and were enabled to conquer the southern part of Iran, whilst the ruler Yazdegerd III retreated to the region of Isfahan in central Iran, where he began to assemble troops in an attempt to retake what he had lost. The Muslims and the troops of Yazdegerd met in the Battle of Jalula in 18 AH, which ended with the defeat of Yazdegerd and his army, and his retreat towards Isfahan.

At-Tabari (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

On that day Allah killed one hundred thousand of them, and the slain covered [jallalat] the ground in all directions. It was called Jalula because it was covered with the bodies of their slain.

Tareekh at-Tabari (4/26)
Then Yazdegerd met the Muslims in the decisive Battle of Nahawand in 21 AH, where the Muslims won a clear victory, after which the Sasanids no longer had any power. The Muslims seized a great deal of booty, which led to them dubbing this battle “the conquest of conquests”.

Ibn Katheer (may Allah have mercy on him) said: It was a mighty battle of great significance and wondrous events, and the Muslims used to call it the conquest of conquests. End quote.

Al-Bidaayah wa’n-Bihaayah (10/111)

It took the Muslims ten years to gain control over all the Iranian lands, because of their huge size and difficult terrain.

One of the things that played a role in the spread of Islam in Iran was the migration of many Arab tribes to Iranians land in which they settled and mixed with the Iranians.

For nearly nine centuries, Iran followed the madhhab of Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamaa‘ah, until the Shi‘i Safavid state seized control of it in 906 AH.

Tareekh at-Tabari by Ibn Jareer at-Tabari

And Allah knows best.

Comments

Popular posts from this blog

SEX BEFORE MARRIAGE AND ITS CONSEQUENCES.

In the name of Allah, most compassionate and most merciful. “From among the signs of the Hour (end of time) are that religious knowledge will be taken away (by the death of religious scholars), ignorance will prevail, drinking of alcoholic drinks, and there will be a prevalence of Zina.” – Prophet (saw) We begin our topic with these words of our beloved Prophet. How true were his words? We live in a world where all these things are prevalent and unfortunately in our Muslim community as well. Many of our Muslim brothers and sisters are trapped in the evil of Zina and it has become a norm for them, as a result they don’t even consider it haram and unlawful. Allah says in holy Quran: Sūrah al-Isrā’, 17:32: “And do not even approach zina, for it is an outrageous act, and an evil way…’’ We are not going into detail about why Zina is unlawful but in this article, you will find the consequences of this sin. How this affects a life of a person physically, mentally, spiritually and so

MUSLIMS MOURN ALI BANAT - THE MAN ‘GIFTED WITH CANCER’

It’s a sad day for all those who knew Ali Banat, the young man gifted with cancer. Ali Banat was an inspiring Australian Muslim philanthropist whose diagnosis of cancer motivated him to dedicate his life to charity work. “At this point in my life, Alhamdulillah I have been gifted by Allah with cancer throughout my body and I have changed my whole life to helping people,” he said. An Inspiration to Muslim Youth A man of a kind heart was known for his charity work over the past three years. One of his biggest achievements is MATW project, (Muslims Around The World) launched in October 2015 to assist those less fortunate in the poverty-stricken areas of Togo, Africa. He was an inspiration to Muslim youth, dedicating his big fortune to charity work. His organization built mosques and schools for the less fortunate in Africa. May Allah accept it from him! Indeed, to Allah we belong and to Him we shall return. May Allah have mercy on our brother Ali Banat and make it easy

THE MAN WHO INSPIRE MILLIONS OF MUSLIMS EVEN WHEN HE IS PASSED AWAY (ALI BANAT)

Ali Banat is a sydney born who was diagnosed with Cancer and doctors have given him only 7 months to live. Despite his circumstances, he considers this a gift from Allah. Ali Banat, is a young man who, in his own words, was “gifted” with a stage 4 cancer throughout his body. He was given just a few months to live but took this great test as an opportunity to change his life. Upon receiving this news he immediately sold his business, gave up his lavish lifestyle and prized possessions and began a new mission to give up his Dunya and work for his Akhira. Ali has humbly dedicated the remainder of his life to helping those who are far less fortunate than him and in doing so, set up the charity MATW Project (Muslims Around The World) which has already changed the lives of so many. Being diagnosed with cancer is like death sentence for many. But this is not the way Australian Muslim Ali Ali Banat sees it. For him, the sickness is unquestionably a gift from Allah. “At this point in m