Al-Bukhaari narrated that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “There will be among my ummah people who will regard adultery, silk, alcohol and musical instruments as permissible.”
This hadeeth indicates that all musical instruments are haraam, including the daff.
‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The daff is haraam, stringed instruments are haraam, drums are haraam and flutes are haraam. Narrated by al-Bayhaqi, 10/222
But there are some ahaadeeth which indicate that it is permissible to beat the daff in some circumstances, which are:
3. When one who has been away, returns.
The evidence for the same is.
It was narrated from ‘Aa’ishah that Abu Bakr (may Allaah be pleased with him) entered upon her and there were two girls with her during the days of Mina beating the daff, and the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was covering himself with his garment. Abu Bakr rebuked them, and the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) uncovered his face and said, “Leave them alone, O Abu Bakr, for these are the days of Eid.” That was during the days of Mina.
Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 944; Muslim, 892
This hadith indicates that the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) did not object the beating of daff on the day of Eid.
It was narrated that al-Rubayyi’ bint Mu’awwidh ibn ‘Afra’ said: “After the consummation of my marriage, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) came and sat on my bed as far from me as you are sitting now, and our little girls started beating the daff and reciting verses mourning my father, who had been killed in the battle of Badr. One of them said, ‘Among us is a Prophet who knows what will happen tomorrow.’ On that the Prophet said, ‘Omit this (saying) and keep on saying the verses which you had been saying before.’”
(Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 4852).
Here in this hadith we come to know that the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) rebuked the use of certain words but other than that he did not stop them from daff.
It was narrated that Buraydah said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) went out on one of his military campaigns, and when he came back, a black slave woman came and said, “O Messenger of Allaah, I vowed that if Allaah brought you back safe and sound, I would beat the daff before you and sing. The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, “If you vowed that, then do it, otherwise do not do it.’” So she started to beat the daff, and Abu Bakr came in whilst she was doing so. Then ‘Ali came in whilst she was beating the daff, then ‘Uthmaan came in whilst she was beating the daff, then ‘Umar came in and she threw the daff beneath her and sat on it. The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, “The Shaytaan is afraid of you, O ‘Umar. I was sitting and she was beating the daff, then Abu Bakr came in when she was beating the daff; then ‘Ali came in when she was beating the daff; then ‘Uthmaan came in when she was beating the daff, but when you came in, O ‘Umar, she put the daff down.”
Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 3690; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Tirmidhi, 2913.
All these hadith indicate special occasion when daff is used and deemed it permissible on those occasions. Other than that it remains haraam. Some scholars made the matter broader and said that it is permissible to beat the daff when a child is born and circumcised, others say that all joyous occasions are the reasons to beat the daff, such as the recovery of a sick person and the like.
See al-Mawsoo’ah al-Fiqhiyyah, 38/169
But it is better to limit ourselves to what was narrated in the text. And Allaah knows best.
Majority of the scholars are of the opinion that it is not permissible for a man to beat the daff, it is what women do. If a man does it, he is imitating the women which is a major sin.
Shaykh al-Islam (Ibn Taymiyah – may Allaah have mercy on him) said:
It is a well-known principle in Islam that religious and righteous men should not gather to listen to verses of poetry that is accompanied by handclapping, rhythms and daff. The Prophet Muhammad( peace be upon him) did not prescribe this. It is not permissible for anyone to go beyond the limits of Islam and follow something other than that which was narrated in the Qur'an and Sunnah, whether that has to do with inward matters or outward, whether for the common man or the elite.
But the Prophet Muhammad( peace be upon him) granted a concession for some kinds of entertainment on certain occasions like weddings and also allowed women to beat the daff at weddings and other joyous occasions..
But with regard to the men of his time, none of them used to beat the daff or clap his hands, rather it was proven in al-Saheeh that he said, ‘Clapping is for women, and Tasbeeh is for men,’ and he cursed women who imitate men and men who imitate women.
It is because, these actions are the actions of women and the salaf used to call a man who did that mukhannath (effeminate), and they used to call male singers makhaaneeth (pl. of mukhannath). This is well known.
Majmoo’ al-Fataawa, 11/565, 566
Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn Baaz (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:
Rather the concession allowing women to use the daff is for them only. With regard to men, it is not permissible for them to do any of that, whether on weddings or on other occasions. Rather Allaah has prescribed for men to train in the instruments of war and skills needed for battle, such as shooting and horse riding, and competing in that.
Majallat al-Jaami’ah al-Islamiyyah (Magazine of the Islamic University in al-Madeenah al-Munawwarah), 3rd edition, 2nd year, Muharram, 1390 AH, p. 185, 186
And he also said:
With regard to weddings, it is prescribed to beat the daff and sing regular songs which do not call for or praise anything that is haraam. This is to be done at night, by women only, to announce the wedding and to emphasize the difference between this legitimate marriage and zina (adultery) which is done in secret, as was narrated in the saheeh Sunnah from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him).
Al-Tabarruj wa Khataruhu (Wanton display and its dangers)
And Allaah knows best.
MY Allah protect us all.